Symptoms can include one or more of the following:
- a new or worsening cough
- sneezing and runny nose
- a fever
- temporary loss of smell or altered sense of taste
- sore throat
- shortness of breath
- fatigue/feeling of tiredness.
Less common symptoms may include:
- muscle pain or body aches
- malaise — a general feeling of discomfort, illness or unease
- chest pain
- abdominal pain
- joint pain
- confusion or irritability.
These less common symptoms almost always occur with one or more of the common symptoms.
These symptoms do not necessarily mean you have COVID-19. The symptoms are like other illnesses that are much more common, such as colds and flu.
Shortness of breath is a sign of possible pneumonia and requires immediate medical attention.
If you have any of these symptoms, contact your doctor, Healthline on 0800 358 5453 or your iwi health provider.
Time for symptoms to appear
Symptoms tend to arise around 2 to 5 days after a person is infected, but symptoms can take up to 14 days to show. A person with COVID-19 can pass it on to others from up to 2 days before showing symptoms.
Sometimes people may have COVID-19, but not have any symptoms.
If you have any symptoms
If you have cold, flu or COVID-19 symptoms, get a test as soon as you start to feel unwell. Doing a test and reporting the result in My Covid Record means you can get the help you need as early as possible.
- your doctor or nurse
- Healthline for free on 0800 358 5453
- your iwi health provider, or
- a community-based testing location
- if you are outside New Zealand, call +64 9 358 5453 or your doctor.
If you test positive
While you have symptoms:
- Stay home. Do not go to work or school. Do not socialise.
- Wash your hands often.
- Sneeze and cough into your elbow, and disinfect shared surfaces often.
- If health authorities tell you to self-isolate, do so immediately. If you are waiting for test results you will also need to self-isolate.
If you have symptoms when your self-isolation period ends
Some people who have tested positive for COVID-19 can still be infectious after 7 days. If you are still sick at the end of your self-isolation period, stay home until you are well and for 24 hours after you no longer have symptoms.
If you get new COVID-19 symptoms
28 days or fewer since a previous infection
If you get COVID-19 symptoms again and it has been 28 days or fewer since a previous infection (either from when you tested positive or you first had symptoms) and:
- you are low risk, you do not need to take another test — stay home and recover, until 24 hours after you no longer have symptoms
- you have an underlying health condition or have COVID-19-like symptoms that are getting worse, you should seek advice from a health practitioner or Healthline on 0800 358 5453.
29 days or more since a previous infection
If you have COVID-19 symptoms again and it has been 29 days or more since a previous infection, you should take a RAT. If it is positive, you must self-isolate and follow the same advice as for your first infection.
How COVID-19 spreads
COVID-19 is spread from person to person. When an infected person breathes, speaks, coughs, sneezes or sings, they may spread particles containing the virus.
These particles range in size. Larger and heavier particles — droplets — quickly fall to the ground or other surfaces within seconds or minutes. Smaller particles — aerosols — can remain airborne for minutes to hours.
COVID-19 is mostly spread by aerosols, which is why air ventilation is important. Getting COVID-19 off a surface is less common, but it is still important to clean surfaces to reduce the risk.
The risk of airborne transmission becomes higher:
- in enclosed spaces that do not have good airflow
- in crowded places with many people nearby
- in close-contact settings, such as close-range conversations, singing, or shouting.
The risk is lower outside, with fewer people, and if people are widely spread.
Long COVID describes the symptoms that continue or develop after the initial COVID-19 symptoms. This is usually longer than 12 weeks after a person is first infected.
Most people who get COVID-19 recover from the acute signs and symptoms within 2 to 4 weeks. And they should be back to all activities they were doing before COVID-19 by 12 weeks. However, some people report a range of symptoms beyond the standard time of recovery.
Symptoms of long COVID can persist for weeks or sometimes months. They can include:
- sore throat
- chest tightness
- chest pain
- difficulty concentrating, cognitive impairment or 'brain fog'
- difficulty sleeping
- pins and needles
- joint pain
- muscle pain.
For support with the management and treatment of long COVID, seek help from your doctor or healthcare team. COVID-19 healthcare is fully funded for up to 6 weeks from the first day of your symptoms or the day you test positive, whichever is earlier.
You can find more information about long COVID, including more commonly reported symptoms, on the Ministry of Health website:
How to protect yourself and others
Keep up healthy habits
Keeping up healthy habits can slow the spread of the virus and help protect you, your whānau, and your community from COVID-19, including variants. Even if you are vaccinated, you still need to keep up these habits.
Getting vaccinated means you are far less likely to get really sick and have to go to hospital if you catch COVID-19. You are also less likely to pass COVID-19 on to other people.
While a 2-dose course provides some protection against severe disease from Omicron, protection against infection can decrease over time. A booster will improve protection against Omicron by reducing the chance of more serious infection and the risk of transmitting it to others.
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